Monday, September 30, 2019

Critical Analysis: Martial Stability and Premarital Cohabitation Essay

The union of marriage has held a specific ideal in the minds of people since it was first instituted hundreds of years ago. However, over the decades, new ideas about the union have become changed, and the cohabitation of two people has become almost acceptable in the walk toward marital bliss. Most Western countries do not have issues with people living together as a couple without being married, and this has led to the concept becoming main stream for future generations (Budinski & Trovato, 2005). However, there is a dark side to co-habitation. Ronald Budinski and Frank Trovato conducted a study in 2005 on the assumption that premarital cohabitation would more likely end up in the dissolution of the marriage than those who did not cohabitate prior to marriage. They published their findings in the article, â€Å"The Effects of Premarital Cohabitation on Marital Stability over the Duration of Marriage. † It can be found in the 32nd volume, issue 1 of the Canadian Studies in Population journal. The results and findings create a new way of considering the stability of marriage in relation to cohabitation and non-cohabitation. The legitimization of cohabitation and the redefining of the term to be a â€Å"substitute for marriage† (Budinski & Trovato, 2005, pg 70) is seen in many Western countries and is the basis for a new brand of research into this new type of union on the fundamental union of marriage. The purpose of the study conducted by Budinski and Trovato (2005) was to find out if the â€Å"marital duration-dependent† existed in relation to cohabitation (pg 70). Their focus was on two main factors: the explanations for any fluctuation of the duration-dependent affect, and to find other factors that would influence the duration-dependency between those who cohabitate and those who do not cohabitate (Budinski & Trovato, 2005). The two researchers decided on two questions they needed to answer that took the main factors into consideration. The first part of the hypothesis is the belief that premarital cohabitation is more likely produce the dissolution of the marital union. The second phase of the hypothesis tests the theory that the risk of marital dissolution is reduced between the two groups the longer the couple is married. They noted five separate outcomes that could occur in regard to the stability of the marriage and cohabitation, but their real focus was on the event and causes of marital dissolution (Budinski & Trovato, 2005). Many believe that cohabitation is a short-term commitment. Researchers have created two theories in which to explain the phenomena of cohabitation. The first is the â€Å"selective thesis† (Budinski & Trovato, 2005, pg 72) which defines those people who prefer cohabitation as individuals that have a problem with staying or dealing with a stable relationship. The second theory is the â€Å"experience theory† (Budinski & Trovato, 2005, pg 72) that cohabitation can create negative views of marriage and positive views of divorce. Most of the previous research conducted supported one or both of these theories. However, in more recent studies, the convergence of equality in marital dissolution seems to be more of the norm than in previous years. This area is still quite new and still being scrutinized by researchers unable to acknowledge without proof that cohabitation is not a major factor in marital dissolution (Budinski & Trovato, 2005). Budinski& Trovato (2005) used a previously compile source of data in the 1995 Canadian General Social Survey: Cycle 10: The Family (GSS-95). The sample included all people ages fifteen and up in 10 Canadian provinces, excluding the Yukon and Northwestern territories. The response rate was 81% or 10,749 individuals. Once those respondents that did not have the necessary data were removed the total number of subjects included in the study numbered 7, 187 individuals that had the required data to conduct the study on premarital cohabitation and marital dissolution (Budinski & Trovato, 2005, pg 75). The study used a multivariate model analysis founded on the Proportional Hazards (PH) Model (Budinski & Trovato, 2005, pg 75). The first aspect of this model was the hazard function that valued the probability of the dissolution of the marital union in relation to time and other controlled variables. They used this function as the baseline to estimate the durations of time prior to marital dissolution. In essence, the dependent variable was the length of time a couple stayed married prior to separation or divorce, with covariates including age, religiousness, education, contraceptive use, region, as well as several other variables. It was assumed that each working in the equation to correlate with cohabitation and marital dissolution since each of the covariates had been previously associated with instability in the marriage union (Budinski & Trovato, 2005). The overall result of this study by Budinski & Trovato (2005) was the fact that there was not a significant difference in the dissolution of the marital union in relation to those how did not cohabitate and those who cohabitated prior to marriage. Because of this result, they focused on the covariates to see which created a significant relation between dissolution of marriage and cohabitation. The covariant of age has a definite relation to cohabitation and the dissolution of the marital union. In fact, women who were 5 years or older than their spouse were more likely to have a marriage end in divorce. This correlation tended to be 4 and ? times greater a risk than couples who were the same age. Education or lack of education was a predictor of dissolution as well. Eighty percent of men that had only a small amount of post-secondary education were likely to have a marriage end in divorce whether they cohabitated or not. Religion also proved to be a factor with 83-100% of those individuals that did not attend religious services on a weekly basis were likely to have a marriage end. The only time that cohabitation proved to correlate to the dissolution of a marriage was when the age and contraceptive use were excluded from the analysis. Only then was there a small but relatively significant relation (Budinski & Trovato, 2005). This study showed that there were only basic correlations between the concept of cohabitation and the dissolution of marriage. The fact that to gain any significant relevance requires the exclusion of two main covariates says much about how cohabitation and divorce or separation related to one another. There were five covariates that did show some relation. These include one or both of the individuals having experienced parental marital dissolution, living within certain territories, religion, spouse being in a cohabitational relationship prior to current relationship, and the use of contraceptive. However, cohabitation alone did not significantly influence the divorce and separation rates in Canada’s 10 territories that were part of this study (Budinski & Trovato, 2005). One factor that was discovered and not added to this or any study was the concept of â€Å"serial cohabitation† (Budinski & Trovato, 2005, pg 87) which is when an individual has more than one cohabitating relationship during adult life. This is a relatively new type of relationship and future studies will have to take this type of cohabitating relationship into account when looking at the union of marriage in relation to cohabitation and non-cohabitation (Budinski & Trovato, 2005). As the world changes and the societal values change, the old institutions of marriage and family will change as well. Life and society are not static, but they are predictable in some fashion. The emergence of cohabitation as a viable step in marriage started in force in the 1970’s. Today this concept is accepted and acknowledged as a legitimate union even prior to marriage. Not all cohabitational relationships will end in marriage, but many will and the chances of their remaining married in relation to those individuals who did not cohabitate is changing as well. The fact is that marriage and cohabitation are not really separate or relational. There are other factors that are more influential on the dissolution of the marriage and it are these variables that need to be considered in closer examination to have a better understanding of the factors of cohabitation, marriage, and the dissolution of a relationship. Bibliography Budinski, R. A. , & Trovato, F. (2005). The effects of premarital cohabitation on marital stability of the duration of marriage. [Electronic version]. Canadian Studies in Population , 32, 69-95.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Opposing Views on Columbus’ Character

It is quite clear that Columbus is a controversial figure in American history; many different views of the â€Å"Admiral of the Ocean† are presented to the American public. For starters Columbus Day is still viewed as a national holiday; on the other side many people are strongly rooted against celebrating the landing of Columbus on the Americas. Some people argue that there is no point to the holiday because Columbus did not even land in North America; others say that he is a crucial part of American History, and of course some say he did more harm than good.Academics have many varying views on the explorer as well; for example Zinn and Morrison, both men wrote on almost exactly the same topic and the end results were two completely different views. Both Zinn and Morrison’s views on Columbus are much more different than similar resulting in two very different articles. Each author depicts Columbus as a different figure entirely. Howard Zinn seems to portray Columbus as a power hungry, money seeking, and arrogant war monger: â€Å"The first man to sight land [For money]†¦ Rodrigo never got it.Columbus Claimed he had seen a light the evening before. He got the reward (Zinn). † (Morrison does not acknowledge this) The reader can clearly feel a strong sense of anger from the author towards Columbus, for one thing this particular sentence was not crucial to the essay whatsoever, therefore the lack of necessity and the bluntness of the statement reveals a strong bias. This was only one example of how Zinn portrays Columbus as the next worse thing to the plague, he continues on by explaining, in immense detail, various unnecessary acts of violence by Columbus.Morrison on the other side of the spectrum presents Columbus more neutrally, writing on both Columbus’ good deeds and negative also. Morrison also delves into Columbus’ background to explain some of his shortcomings such as greed and the need for attention. However Morriso n almost defends and sympathizes with Columbus at points by saying Columbus was â€Å"forced† into the position in which he had to act immoral. In comparison, though, Morrison takes a more neutral stand point on Columbus’ character than Zinn.Of course both authors share something in their writing and that is bias, however Zinn’s sense of bias is much stronger than that of Morrison’s. Zinn’s bias primarily focuses on his view of Columbus’ treatment of the Natives and Columbus’ character, which greatly influences Zinn’s article. It is clear from the beginning that Zinn wishes to write primarily about the Indians and how they were treated by the way his first paragraph is centered on the Indians and how Columbus planned to treat them.Every chance Zinn was able to write in violence he chose to; five different instances of violence can be read in his article. Finally Mr. Zinn states that Columbus’ second much larger voyage wa s only due to his â€Å"exaggerated report and promises (Zinn). † This statement is supplied with no evidence whatsoever and any somewhat read person could plainly see this as an opinion. Morrison on the other hand almost seems to take the side of Columbus, perhaps to counter all the negativity towards the infamous explorer.Bashing Columbus was simply not the goal of Morrison; instead he takes a more in analytical approach by acknowledging both good and bad qualities to the trip and chooses to focus on the journey as a whole and how it began to evolve. To contrast the two writers, three events were mentioned in both articles but all three were totally represented differently. The first being when Columbus takes a few Arawaks to guide him to the gold, Morrison simply states that he picked â€Å"up a few Indians as guides,† while of course Zinn decides to say Columbus took â€Å"some of them [Indians] as prisoners. Of course as a reader it is difficult to discern which is more accurate. Both authors explain the destruction of fort Navidad, however very differently, Morrison is straight forward saying the sailors got into a quarrel with the Indians because of their search for girls and gold; at the same time Zinn goes into explicit details that the sailors were attempting to rape and plunder. The last incident is Columbus’ request of gold tributes from the natives, both explain that the tribute was impossible but Zinn goes into grotesque detail regarding the punishment of the slaves furthering how biased he really is.The angry passion Zinn writes with is something that could make it hard for the audience to believe. Instead of using a strong argument and direct evidence Mr. Zinn chooses to write angrily on his topic and is extremely blatant in doing so, because of this his account of the entire journey is much harder to believe than that of Morrison’s. Simultaneously Zinn’s style of writing versus Morrison’s makes both a rticles, although pertaining to the same thing, extremely different.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Understand health and safety in social care setting Essay

According to the health and safety authority a hazard is defined as ‘a potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or persons and a risk is defined as ‘. The likelihood that a person may be harmed or  suffers adverse health effects if exposed to a hazard The example they use to contextualise the two is very clear and very helpful. ‘ If there was a spill of water in a room then that water would present a slipping hazard to persons passing through it. If access to that area was prevented by a physical barrier then the hazard would remain though the risk would be minimised. To be able to use a health and safety risk assessment you must be able to spot hazards and evaluate what the hazard poses, for example you see in the clients home that there is an obstacle in the way of an entrance restricting the space so some walkers wouldn’t be able to get past safely this would be a high risk of falling Afterwards the risk assessment should have been reviewed and any findings that you make should be recorded appropriately, and changes made to further ensure that persons health and safety, perhaps by amending the work you have already done with the risk assessment and it should be reported to either your senior or manager that risk assessment is complete. Reporting health and safety risks that have been identified. It is important for all staff to be able to report any possible identified health and safety risks. They should be confident in knowing how and when to act upon it. In the care working environment the employer must make their employees know that it is of the upmost importance that they are to act upon and report any possible health and safety risks that could potentially put others in a place of harm or injury in the work place. They must be aware that even if the recognised problem has already been flagged and documented they are still responsible in reporting it to ensure the correct procedures can be put into place. This will aid in the help of rectifying the hazard that has been reported. There will already be the properly implemented measures to reduce any possible health and safety risks. But the action and knowledge of the procedure of reporting and documenting all occurrences of physical, viral, injuries and sicknes s and also any potential risks of accidents is still a vital procedure that must never be ignored. Within all Framework services they have policies and procedures in regard of reporting  all health and safety incidents and accidents in place. They outline the importance of documenting and reporting in writing and also speaking of any possible preventable accidents no matter how large and small they may seem. In all any recognised health and safety issues the Framework is that they are reported to the line manager who is in the position of acting on the assessment of the hazard. All accidents and risks must always be clearly documented and reported with the correct time and date accordingly to give a true and accurate account of the incident. An on-going assessment of the health and safety in the workplace is vital to prevent any dangers occurring or being missed. How a risk assessment can help address dilemmas between an individual’s rights and health and safety concern. Risks are an important part of our everyday lives we are encouraged to take them to possibly reach our set goals whether it will be for our working life or personal achievement’s. For others who may need special needs support they may be actively deterred from taking such risks. This could be due to a fear of them coming to harm or they may not be able to cope with the results of their actions. This could result in them becoming less confident with the purpose of their life and their right to be an independent individual. Legislation and workplace policies have been implemented to support such problems occurring. They enable these individuals to be given the appropriate support and help that they require to be able to live in society as independent as possible without the fear of being a health and safety risk to themselves or others. Health and training for the support workers will help them with confronting any possible problems that could arise whilst helping the person who requires their help in becoming more independent. Continuous observation and of reviewing practice and procedures are put into place to ensure that the individual in their care is least likely to be confronted with any hazards or sociable obstacles that could lead them to suffer any further emotional or physical harm. The fact that the person in your care requires a risk assessment or a plan management this should not mean they are restricted in what they want to do or the person they want to be Understanding of procedures for responding to accidents and sudden illness. Different types of accidents and sudden illness that may occur in a social care setting. There are a wide variety of sudden illnesses and accidents that can occur and put the individual in immediate danger. These could be caused by everyday objects such as a loose rug or even a wet floor. If these hazards are not pointed out or left unchanged they could lead to the person suffering a fall or breaking of bones. The individual could be burnt or scarred if items such as an iron or cooker are left on. They should be monitored carefully with any hot appliances in the prevention of injuries. They could also suffer from poisoning and overdosing if chemicals or medicine is not correctly stored away from the vulnerable person. Sudden illnesses Illnesses that are brought on suddenly are medical conditions such as a stroke which is where the brain cells die suddenly through the lack of oxygen. This is when there is a blockage in the blood flow and or the rupture of a artery that connects to the brain. Asthma is a dangerous medical condition which causes difficulty in breathing, breathing difficulties can also be caused by allergic reactions to substances or items. Hypoglycaemia is a medical condition brought about by the drop of glucose [sugar]. Choking is a hazard brought about by the airway is blocked commonly by food. Seizures can cause spasms of muscles and or unconsciousness this is caused by the electrical workings of the brain fails to work correctly. A fall could lead to the person losing consciousness or temporary fainting. A person who develops food poisoning from contaminated water or ill prepared or stored food will suffer from sickness and diarrhoea. A heart attack is known as a cardiac arrest this is where the heart fails to pump blood around the body leading to heart failure. Chest pain which is felt around the shoulders around the ribs and generally in the upper torso could imply a large amount of conditions. These symptoms should never be ignored and always be checked by the medical profession. Procedures that are followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur. The first important thing that all staff must adhere to is the policies and procedures that have been implemented by their workplace. They  must be always ready and aware of what action to take in the possible case of illness or accident. They should behave in a professional manner and that their actions and behaviour do not create any hindrance to their client’s recovery. You should remove any persons who are not directly involved in the aid of the client and keep the entrance safely clear to allow the medical staff a clear admittance. The client should be treated with respect at all times and not left to feel like a second rate citizen. The surrounding environment should be made safe and private. You can do this by. Disabling the power supply in the prospect of electrical shock. Move the patient to a safe area in the case of risk of fire or an unstable building. Clear the surrounding area of any unwanted obstacles i.e.: furniture. You should make the person feel comfortable and dignified. The correct way to handle emergencies and dealing with the medically trained professionals are: For emergencies only you should ring 999. Clear the area and make it a safe place. Keep the person conscious by talking to them loudly or if they do not make a clear response check their [ABC] Airway Breathing and Circulation. You should call for help as soon as possible. Tilt their head and check for an airway, if there is not a clear one give 2 deep breaths. Check to see if there is pulses if none is felt on the main arteries in the neck begin the [BLS] Basic Life Support. This consists of 15 chest compressions and 2 breaths. Carry on with the BLS until the medical professionals arrive or the patients symptoms improve. Do not stop the BLS unless you are told to or a professional takes over. When medical help arrives you must give them a clear and true account of the symptoms the patient’s medical history and of any treatment that they may have received. The line manager must be given a report on the circumstances of the accident or injury stating clearly the names of all the people who were involved in the incident, what the cause of the accident was or what medical condition brought about the incident. The report must be clearly documented giving a true and detailed account of all that occurred and naming all of who was involved and how the incident or accident was dealt with and the outcome of the event. The report should be signed and dated. The importance of emergency first aid tasks to be carried out by qualified first aiders. The intention of First Aid is to aid a person with recovering from a suffered accident/medical condition. The act of First Aid is covered by the Health and Safety regulations and under your employees set of policies and procedures. The act of First Aid should be carried out to give the patient a better chance of recovery and reduce the possibility of further health problems. The only staff members that are allowed to carry out the act of First Aid are ones who have been legally and qualified. This is to stop the chance of any unqualified persons giving aid that could cause the patient harm and with less chance of recovery. This could lead to legal charges being brought against the company. In the case of a qualified person in First Aid having doubts about what action they need to give the patient they should not carry out aid and contact their manager with the intent of asking for help to what they should do. If they do not ask for help and guess what they need to do this could end in serious consciences for the patient. This is clearly set out by the companies Frame work and should be adhered to at all times. 4 Reducing the spread of infection 4.1 Routes by which an infection can get into the body. There are a variety of infections people can suffer from. The infections can enter the body come from four different ways. .Colds and other air born infections can enter the body in the respiratory tract go through the lungs. .Infection is also contracted through the skin. This could be from a sore or broken skin which allows the infection to break through the normally safe armour of the skin. .The digestive tract is the opening for infection to the stomach and bowels. This occurs when infected food or water is digested and this leads to stomach ache vomiting and diarrhoea. .The fourth entry of infection is through urinary and reproductive system. This is where the infection is contracted through the blood. .Infection is also carried through bodily fluids such as semen, saliva and the blood system. This can develop into sexually contracted disease and the AIDS virus. 4.2 Ways in which your own health or hygiene might pose a risk to an individual or others at work. It is important to keep yourself clean and tidy because if your own health and hygiene is left to deteriorate this can lead to the possibility of causing a risk to others. There are policies in the work place that are put into place to help with reducing the risk of infection. .Always wash hands before touching and preparing food. .After using the toilet wash hands thourally. .Cover your mouth when coughing and look away from others to prevent the spread of infection. .When changing or applying plasters always wash your hands. .Always throw away used tissues properly. .Protect yourself with the PPE provided. .If unwell stay away from work to help with stopping the spread of infection. In the health and social care environment employees must be always well enough to perform their work safely. This is to maintain a high standard of health and safety which reduces the risks of patients and others being susceptible to infections. The work places set policies must be always followed to provide good practice. If you or family members are unwell and you are unsure of whether you will pose a risk to others you must consulate with your own doctor about going to work. Most practices have the guideline of not returning to work if unwell until you have being ill for 48 hours. Because some infections can be carried in the body for weeks your employer can request that you take further investigations from medical professionals to confirm you no longer cause a risk of infection too patients or other staff members. PPE with self-protection amongst the staff members and clients is important to reduce them contracting illness and infections. They must ensure no possible infected materials and their own personal health is left or ignored to make the working environment is as infection free as possible and others are not put at risk. The most thorough method of hand washing. Hand washing i probably the most common of all of the hygienic operations in the care work place. Even when gloves have been worn this should not stop you from washing your hands. This is due to possible contamination when  removing them or maybe tearing of the gloves may occur in the process of possible contamination. The technique of hand washing and engraining the act of hand washing is important to keep your hands with a high level of cleanliness. Particular attention to the back of your hands and finger tips as these areas are mostly missed. You should wet your hands first and then lather with soap. You may need to use a specialist type of soap if your hands are particularly dirty. This type of cleaning requires you to apply the soap first and then proceed with the hand washing taking care to follow the manufactures instructions. To ensure the stopping of passing on infections you should follow the steps of hand washing after you have wet your hands- 1. Rub your palms together 2. With your finger entwined rub back of hands. 3. Then with fingers still entwined rub palms of hands. 4. With fingers locked together rub the back of your fingers against your opposite palms. 5. Rotate your thumbs and rub the back of them within your palms. 6. Keep rubbing your fingers against your palm whilst turning your hands back and forward. To dry your hands thoroughly you must use a clean towel or disposable paper which you must wash or throw away to reduce to spread of infection and never reuse. 4.4When different types of personal protective equipment should be used;- The (PPE) which stands for Personal Protective Equipment refers to the clothing and equipment that is provided to reduce the possibility of the spread of infections. It is the duty of your employer to provide these items to ensure yours and others health and safety is never put at risk. You must follow their health and safety policies as set by your employers. If you ignore the health and safety policies and do not use or wear the provided garments you will be in breach of the health and safety laws that have been set for your own benefit and others. If somebody is dealing with the risk of infection through bodily fluids or maybe using cleaning fluids you must wear disposable gloves. The gloves should fit the person and not hang off your hands as this will hamper the safety of how you do your job. Never reuse these gloves or touch areas that could be contaminated and then your client as this will put at risk of infection. You must discard the gloves correctly  after use and then wash your hands thoroughly. Support workers should be aware that some people are allergic to the latex which is what the gloves are made from or maybe they themselves could suffer from allergies from these gloves. If this is the case their employers will supply them gloves made from a different material. If you are in a procedure that could lead to have some form of bodily fluids splash onto you, you are required to wear the plastic disposable apron that will be provided. Remember that you need to be aware of your hand hygiene when removing the apron as this could result in a contamination of the health and safety process. You must dispose of the disposable gloves and aprons correctly when you have finished with them; this should be in the provided clinical waste bin that is provided. When handling food the apron that is provided will be a washable one that can be used again when washed.

Friday, September 27, 2019

John Donne's poetry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

John Donne's poetry - Essay Example While John Donnes poetry implements unifying stylistic elements, it also spans a number of diverse genres, including sonnets, love poetry, religious poems, Latin translations, epigrams, elegies, songs, satires and sermons. With specific reference to the Flea, Sun Rising,the Anniversary, the Indifferent, Song, Batter My Heart, Death be not Proud, and Oh my Black Soul, this essay examines the main themes of Donnes poetry and the predominant stylistic elements he utilizes to convey them. One of the central thematic elements John Donnes poetry explores is that of love. One of Donnes brilliantly clever works in these regards in his poem The Flea. This work advances the theme of love in a number of well structured ways. The prevailing tone of the poem is whimsical, as the narrator implements the metaphorical conceit in drawing a connection between blood in a flea that has bitten himself and his woman of interest and a sense of romantic connection. For instance, Donne states, â€Å"O stay, three lives in one flea spare,/ Where we almost, yea, more than married are† (Donne, 2004). In some regards, its clear the Donne is utilizing a great deal of hyperbole in this comparison, as the connection between the flea and romantic love is slightly humorous; however, characteristic of Donne, the love theme is advanced with great wit. Similar in theme to the Flea is Donnes seminal metaphysical love poem The Sun Rising. In this work one finds many of the stylistic elements that are characteristic of Donnes working, including masterful use of hyperbole and wit. Notably, while Shakespeare, a contemporary of Donnes, structured his love sonnets toward another individual, in The Sun Rising Donne focuses his attention more on the nature of love. The main hyperbolic device utilized in this poem is the narrators envisionment of the sun as a consciously aware entity. In these regards, the speaker calls out to the sun, asking why it

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Should legal immigration be stopped Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Should legal immigration be stopped - Essay Example It is important to understand the value placed on immigrating to America, especially in the developing countries and even some European nations. The value is so great that these people are sometimes willing to go to all lengths to secure a move. There are many shortcomings of illegal immigration, for example, it results in human trafficking and modern day slavery. Therefore, if the presence of legal immigration contains illegal immigration, then it should not be stopped because its presence reduces suffering. However, there are still cases of illegal immigration despite the presence of legal procedures (Dvorak, 2009). This implies that the problem has to be solved in another way (Egendorf, 2006). Some sources attribute the illegal immigration to hard immigration procedures and limited opportunities, which in turn suggest that the problem can be solved my making immigration easier (Egendorf, 2006). There is also an economic argument for the presence of legal immigration. Due to the procedures that the applicants have to follow, only the best professionals and students make it. This implies that the country gains skilled manpower, which in turn boosts production and creativity (Graham, 2004). Therefore, legal migration is important because it strengthens the American position as a global leader. Attracting the best workers and students from less developed nations leads to ‘brain drain’. These countries will remain stagnated because their best minds migrate overseas instead of contributing to development in their own countries (Williams, 2004). The result is that their homelands remain reliant to international aid. Therefore, it has been proposed that legal migration increases the burden on the United States because the country is forced to make humanitarian contributions to the countries. The only flaw in this proposal is that it has not been tested. It

Research Argumentative Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Research Argumentative Paper - Essay Example He has affected the health sector and a diversity of other sectors through his luminary practice of motion media design. Christopher Mennuto, who is experienced and award winning media motion designer. In the field of motion media designs that include television, graphics, and video games. His work of art has had a major influence on the world. From analysis, most are positive. The following are the positive impact that motion media design can be of importance: Medically, the role of a motion media design cannot be better underscored than what they have done. They have revolutionized the medical setup through their skills and expertise in animation. Matsuda & Hiroshi, their research revealed that animation have been used effectively in understanding the surgical procedures and the physiological process in the body (177). Therefore, it is conceivable that better care and advancing in the medical field can be better if the motion media design is fully embraced since it has shown a positive influence. Additionally, in the medical field, motion media design has had many other positive influences by equipping the medical students with the knowledge. Animation has been widely used in medical simulations and pharmacologic action imitation. Pandey & Nitin, according to statistics, indicated that the efficacy of teaching increased by over twenty percent when animations of media motion design were used compared with when the illustrations were not used (99). Following that revelation, it has been adopted in many medical teaching institutions that are well equipped with motion media design facilities. Health education has been vital in reducing the current high burden of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Most of the patients and high-risk population are ignorant of the diseases thus making it difficult for the health educationist in discharging their mandates (Matsuda &Hiroshi, p.173). Following the

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

An arguementative paper on home schooling vs. public school Essay

An arguementative paper on home schooling vs. public school - Essay Example Various forms of bullying that include but are not limited to physical abuse, verbal abuse, sexual abuse, hitting, punching, kicking, threatening, and seducing have become frequent in schools these days. This leads us to the question: Is home schooling better than public schooling? Owing to the widespread violence in schools, home schooling should be preferred over public school. Home schooling is much better option than public schooling because of a number of reasons. In the home, children are not exposed to racism of any sort. In the educational environment of public schools, children have to be in the company of racist fellows on daily basis. In the environment of a home, a child studies in the atmosphere created by his parents. He/she feels protected and is better able to concentrate upon the studies. Quite often, one or both parents are educated enough to teach the children themselves. In cases where the parents are not educated enough, tutors can be arranged very easily. A lot of educated people look forward to such opportunities because of unemployment. In addition to that, such platforms as internet have become a potential means of education in the present age. A lot of informative videos are available online and the child is just a click away from education.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Project Management for construction Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Project Management for construction - Essay Example Failure of the management to provide safe and healthy working environment often leads to more accidents and diminished productivity, work slippage and significant delays which often results in losses. However, quality failures are not only attributable to human resource alone but may also be a result of poor material handling, including procurement, inventory control, shop fabrication and field servicing.1( Tersine, R.J. 1982) The use or the none use of new equipment may also be a factor for poor productivity. In some cases, the failure of the construction firm to adopt recent innovations in technology removes the company from the mainstream construction activities thereby reducing its competitiveness in terms of work speed and efficiency. With a strong technological base, there is no reason why the construction industry cannot catch up and reassert itself to meet competition wherever it may be. Individual design and/or construction firms must explore new ways to improve productivity for the future.2( Peurifoy, R.L. 1970) A site subcontractor who have been contracted by my company for so many years is currently having quality failures. During the previous years, the same subcontractor serviced our company without problems. However, in the past few years, this contractor have not be performing well. Several sites on which it is currently working on have been experiencing quality failures requiring re-works and causing significant delays. Based on initial reports, the subcontractor is experiencing poor productivity and high labour turnover in its site preliminaries team. They have had four team managers in the last four years and the team has twice walked off jobs during that period. Further reports state that the preliminaries team Head Office base is in two portakabins in the Head Office car park. As Head Investigator for a main contractor, I should

Monday, September 23, 2019

Analysisn of Premier Food`s Code of Conduct and Business Ethics Essay

Analysisn of Premier Food`s Code of Conduct and Business Ethics - Essay Example These values are reflected not only in the company’s code of conduct, but in Premier Foods’ annual report to shareholders which emphasise corporate social responsibility as a key business success factor. Critical analysis of Premier Foods’ Code of Conduct Premier Foods has established its code of conduct, a document illustrating the expectations of both managers and employees to satisfy demands for ethical business behaviour. The code of conduct stipulates that manager should be leading by example as well as creating a decentralised environment in which employees are allowed to express their concerns openly (Premier Foods 2012). Premier Foods identifies one of its core values as trust (Premier Foods 2012), the foundation by which employees are willing to follow leadership guidance and example. According to Farrell and Knight (2003, p.541) â€Å"trust is embodied in the regulations, rules and policies by which leaders seek to get accepted by others†. The co de of conduct acts as both a reinforcement of expectations of ethical behaviour and also as a sanction by which to ensure compliance, backed by managerial role modelling of desired behaviours to gain employee commitment to achieving strategic goals. Premier Foods establishes an ethical climate by using the code of conduct to promote social justice. Under social justice theory in ethics, it is assumed that every individual in society or in the organisation maintains an inviolability of justice and human rights that cannot and should not be overridden by the broader organisational culture (Rawls 2005). The expectations of managers in promoting equality and rights in the workplace are reflected in the corporate code of conduct, emphasised under the company’s â€Å"treating people fairly† guidelines. Premier Foods ensures that fair treatment is imposed on the employee population with decisions made based on individual merit (Premier Foods 2012). The company also ensures eq ual opportunities for all employees through objective management systems. These aforementioned managerial responsibilities highlighted in the corporate code of conduct are designed around transformational leadership theory, one in which managers are interactive with employees, regularly impart mission and vision principles to gain commitment, and where managers utilise role modelling to promote ethics under social learning theory (Fairholm 2009; Schlosberg 2006). This is how trust is instilled into the organisation: the business does not simply promote its belief in social justice and equality, but injects a clear example of its ethical values into the philosophy of management utilised by leaders in the organisation. Premier Foods is able to maintain its tight and unified corporate culture by not deviating from management theory that promotes equality and shared decision-making. â€Å"Leaders who are ethical demonstrate a level of integrity that is important for stimulating a sense of leader trustworthiness† (Resick et al. 2006, p.348). Grieves (2010) iterates that change must be a negotiated order in order to gain employee commitment and loyalty. The conception of social justice and equality, as two components acting as the foundation of trust, are reinforced by establishing expectations for managerial behaviour under visionary or transformational

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Genetically Modified Food Essay Example for Free

Genetically Modified Food Essay Genetically engineered food is an epidemic all around the world. There are factors that make these types of foods undesirable for many reasons. Public opinions on how genetically engineered foods will effect the consumer market and farmers cannot afford the new seeds that are genetically altered. There are many cons of genetically engineered food that have long term and short term risks. Some risks have been found by scientists while other risks are still unknown and will remain so unless a researcher tests for them. These foods have become very common in America as well as other countries. Almost every grocery store in the United States carries a wide array of food that has been genetically modified. Most of the genetically engineered foods in markets are not labeled to tell consumers they were altered in any way. Environmental risks are also a concern for genetically engineered food. Different animals, including farm animals or insects can be harmed from genetically engineered food. Genetically engineered food has negative effects on the human population. Genetically engineered food was first introduced into society in the early 1990’s. Many people today do not know what kind of extensive research and development goes into making these types of foods. Sharon Palmer, a reporter, writes that genetic engineering is either â€Å"Doomsday tech† or â€Å"biotechnology for the future† (Palmer 1). The process of altering an organism completely changes the original organism and transforms it into something new. This new way of altering an organism’s genetic makeup bypasses common breeding methods used by scientists (Genetically Modified Foods 1). The process of creating genetically altered food usually involves â€Å"identifying the genes governing a desirable characteristic in one organism, nd inserting them into another in the expectation that the trait will be transferred† (Genetically Modified Foods 1). Sometimes the process of creating these organisms does not work so scientists have to do the process over again until they get a transformed organism. In 1973 scientists were able to achieve using another organism as a vector which essentially was the beginning of the development of genetically engineered foods. Although genetically engineered foods were not fully introduced until the early 1990s, they were in the process of becoming what society knows today. Newer techniques have been introduced that make it easier for gene insertion. This new method is the use of DNA bullets where â€Å"microscopic metal beads can be coated with DNA fragments, and then â€Å"fired† from a miniature gun into the host cell, where DNA may integrate into the genome† (Genetically Modified Foods 1). A few of the genetically engineered foods are soybeans, corn, canola, cotton, squash and papaya (Palmer 1). There are many other foods that people see on the shelves in grocery stores that may be genetically altered but these are some main ones. Statistics show that â€Å"an estimated 70 to 75 percent of all processed foods in U. S. rocery stores probably contain ingredients from GE plants† (Palmer 6). Many foods have been genetically altered to make them â€Å"better† or resistant to herbicides. Despite the fact that scientists consider these foods to be revolutionary there are hidden consequences to the development of such organisms. The public opinion on genetically engineered food is that it is not a good improvement. Many citizens believe that the introduction of altered foods is going to have negative side effects on everything. People feel that genetically engineered foods should not be put on the market until they have had adequate testing (Current Issues 3). Many of the alterations done to food have not had extensive research conducted to find harmful effects that they might have on humans and animals. Any research that had been done usually had negative effects but scientists found a way to â€Å"throw out† the research so that it would not go against genetically engineered food. Andrew Simms states that the â€Å"evidence of harm is not evidence of the absence of harm† (Simms 1). In Simm’s article he describes how consumers do not need genetically modified food. Scientists brought genetically engineered foods into the market and advertised them as a way to help the world. Different techniques can be used to approach the issue of world hunger. Introducing these foods to third world countries can only harm them not help them. There is a high cost of development for making genetically engineered foods. Also there is a monopoly involved with these foods. There are only a few corporations in the United States that are developing genetically altered seeds. This in turn drives up the price of the seed making it more expensive and poor farmers cannot afford to buy them (Current Issues 3). Farmers have lost billions of dollars because foreign buyers do not want to buy genetically engineered foods (Kupfer 1). Many states have passed legislation against having genetically modified foods. States do not think that genetically engineered foods can help anything except make things worse (Kupfer 2). Foods are altered to have different traits that would normally take a few generations to make but with genetically engineering their DNA scientists are able to do a lot more. Scientist use genetic engineering to make crops or animals drought tolerant and be able to tolerate pests. Consumers do not want crops that are mutations. They want natural crops and animals. Other public opinions on worldwide hunger are that GM crops will not change it. â€Å"People go hungry because they’re either poor, powerless, both, or have no land to grow food on† (Simms 2). Public opinion on genetically engineered food is that they do not want it. Many factors have led people to choose not to accept genetically engineered foods into their lives. Genetically engineered food effects everything in a negative way. There are cons to the development and introduction of genetically engineered foods into civilization. There are many risks involved with these types of foods that are unknown to the public. Scientists try to cover up the experiments they had on genetically altered foods because they had negative outcomes. In one study scientists fed corn to rats and then checked the rats’ livers and kidneys, particularly males, and the study revealed adverse effects. In another study conducted on GM foods many of the mice that ate the food developed health problems or even died during the experiment (Current Issues 4). The introduction of genetically engineered foods has been linked to the rising levels of food allergies in the United States. Genetically modified foods can effect organic foods if they are processed in the same place. Allergic reactions are greater since genetically engineered foods have been introduced (Smith 1). There are many environmental concerns as well. Although long term impact is unknown many researchers can conclude some of the negative side effects. A few difficulties have already developed. Plants can cross-pollinate with other plants around them which may seem like a great thing but it is not. Some plants are engineered to be pest resistant which seems good but in all actuality those plants can cross-pollinate with the weeds around them which in turn makes the weeds stronger and become more resistant to herbicides. The cross-pollination of plants creates a problem for farmers who then have to spend additional money to buy more herbicide to kill new weeds (Current Issues 3). Another common modification is adding a gene called Bacillus thuringiensis which is a bacterium that helps that plant develop poison that kills pests such as bollworms and stem borers. This seemed like a good modification by scientists but in fact the plant emits these toxins into the environment and it is deadly to all insects, not just the pests. Reports have been shown that these toxins from the crops also killed a large amount of butterflies (Current Issues 1). U. S. Government does not require reviews on genetically engineered foods. Genetically altered foods are not FDA regulated either. Foods are being modified without having adequate testing and then put on grocery shelves. People are eating food that they do not know whether or not it is safe. There are many other potential concerns with genetic engineering like an organisms genetic makeup, anti-nutrients, viral DNA, antibiotic resistant genes, absorbing genes, and allergic responses. Many genetically altered foods have been used as feed for animals as well. These animals have shown effects on body growth, changes in blood, kidney, pancreas, liver, erosion and necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and alterations in reproduction, development and mortality (Palmer 6). There are many unknown risks of genetically engineered foods. Unknown long term health risks have not been identified and cannot be identified until researchers conduct more research. Genetically modified foods are not something people should rely on in the future as their base food. There are risks today and also many other unknown risks. Genetically engineered food is a hazard to the human population. This creation was introduced to try and stop world hunger, make food cheaper to buy and many other reasons. These issues have not changed because of the introduction of genetically engineered food. The effects these types of foods have on humans and even animals can be harmful. Research shows that there are long term risks involved with genetically engineered foods. Potential cancers, diseases, environmental changes, and possibly a rising cost in food are all negative factors of genetically engineered food. Genetically engineered foods should be eliminated from people and animal’s diets.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Crime Risk Management

Crime Risk Management How can the security/risk manager utilise the Crime Risk Management process and how useful is this process? Crime Risk Management (CRM) is an evolutionary and analytical process to assess whether organisational procedures, assets or individuals could become exposed to a potential threat; to identify the measures necessary to reduce any such risk; to mitigate the consequences of any hazard once realised; to evaluate the success or otherwise of the prescribed course of action; and to adapt appropriately. The conventions of risk management take into account that whilst risk is unlikely to be entirely eradicated, adapting organisational security mechanisms to further protect against anticipated or imagined threats can significantly reduce it. The Crime Risk Management process provides those responsible for securing an organisation against risk with various tools. To develop a greater understanding of how CRM is utilised today it is beneficial to consider the practices of a particular industry in isolation. The manner in which the banking industry combats financial crimes such as plastic fraud provides a useful example. Further to this, in order to critically assess the effectiveness of the approaches taken by industry watchdogs in safeguarding against risk, a brief comparison between the Banking sector and the United Nations CRM practices has been included. Ultimately, when best practices are followed, the CRM process can also have the effect of a deterrent against future misconduct when the latent vulnerabilities of an operation are recognised and appropriately reduced to within acceptable boundaries. According to constitutive criminology, crime is defined as the harm resulting from people â€Å"investing energy in harm-producing relations of power,† which â€Å"denies others their ability to make a difference† (McLaughlin and Muncie, 2006:66). The United States (US) Air Force Material Command Pamphlet (AFMCPAM 63-101, 1997:5) describes risk as â€Å"a measure of a projects inability to achieve program objectives†¦(it) has two components: the probability of failing to achieve particular performance, schedule or cost objectives, and the consequences of failing to achieve those objectives†. Subsequently, risk management is the process of ‘controlling’ such risks and â€Å"includes identifying and tracking risk areas, developing risk mitigation plans as part of risk handling, monitoring risks and performing risk assessments to determine how risks have changed† (AFMCPAM 63-101, 1997:5-6). Cox (2005:64) defines risk management as a â€Å"decision process that maps available risk assessment information about the probable consequences of acts of crime, along with value judgments and priority information concerning the choices of which acts to take in response†. This definition however interprets the discipline of risk management as a more passive activity, focusing more on the assimilation of information and the analysis that follows, rather than the active intervention required to avert or alleviate the risk. Conversely, Broder as cited in Nalla Newman (1990: 92), defines CRM as the â€Å"anticipation, recognition and appraisal of a risk and the initiation of some action to remove the risk or reduce the potential loss from it to an acceptable level†. Based on the above contrasting definitions, one focusing on the information gathering and analysis aspect, and the other accentuating the notion of taking action to avert the risk, CRM can be concluded to have a number of objectives: namely to assess risk by proactive means rather than simply reacting to risks as and when they are encountered, to assess potential losses that might result from these eventualities, conduct a cost benefit analysis of taking risk intervention measures such as setting up a CRM process, and finally, to minimise, control or transfer foreseeable risks (Gill, 1998:14). Therefore, a solid â€Å"risk management approach includes three primary elements: a threat assessment, a vulnerability assessment, and a criticality assessment† (Decker, 2001:1). Each of these aspects also takes into consideration the probability of an occurrence and the timeframe in which it is likely to occur during the lifetime of a project (AFMCPAM 63-101, 1997:6). Threat assessments are critical supports for operational decision-making in the security program design phase, identifying areas requiring crucial and concerted efforts. These assessments identify and evaluate risks based on a number of elements including ‘capability’, ‘intentions’, and the ‘potential lethality’ of a breach (Decker, 2001:1). Since there is no way to anticipate every possible risk, or to know everything about each risk, the two other processes involved in this method, vulnerability and criticality assessments, are essential in maximising preparedness against the threat of a violation. A vulnerability assessment determines â€Å"weaknesses that may be exploited† by potential perpetrators and â€Å"suggests options to eliminate or mitigate those weaknesses†. â€Å"A criticality assessment is a process designed to systematically identify and evaluate†: an operation’s key assets based on their consequence to the fulfilment of its mission or basic function, those within the organisation that may prove vulnerable, â€Å"or the significance of a structure† (Decker, 2001:1). This aspect of the CRM approach is imperative since it has the potential to aid preparedness against material threats, and in turn, enhance the allocation of scarce resources to those areas, whether to assets, procedures or structures, subsequently identified as being of the highest priority and thereby requiring ‘special protection’ from perceived threats (Decker, 2001:1-2). While a number of conventional theories are both accessible and feasibly applicable as CRM processes, the two contemporary methods that are the most popular are the rational choice and routine activity theories. The routine activity approach considers only direct-contact predatory violations, where at least one offender takes or damages the property of at least one other person. It is thus based on three factors, â€Å"a likely offender, a suitable target and the absence of capable guardians against crime† (Cohen and Felson, 1979:588). On the other hand, the rational choice approach focuses on situational crime prevention, predicting the time and place where crimes are likely to occur, reducing opportunities and the motivation to offend, and thereby decreasing the propensity of the criminal to offend at all (Clarke and Cornish, 1985:174-177). Both of these approaches highlight the importance of assimilation and analysis of information. To this end, the Crime Pattern Analysis ( CPA) is a critical informative tool â€Å"which seeks to determine what crimes are likely to impact particular targets†, to identify â€Å"the criminals (most) likely to commit the crimes, and (to forecast) how and when such crimes are likely to occur† (Tyska and Fennelly, 1998:50). An initial consideration of these concepts would appear relatively straightforward, however the prospect of implementing an effective CRM process to adequately safeguard against risk can be a daunting endeavour for the security manager. One area in particular requiring a comprehensive CRM approach is the retail banking industry especially relating to plastic fraud. Plastic fraud includes various types of criminal activity including use of stolen cards, skimming, absent ordering, and identity theft (Newman and Clarke, 2003:145, Refer also to Appendix 1, page 13). Misuse of stolen cards is the most traditional form of plastic fraud, where cards are stolen from customers, enabling the fraudsters to make purchases in the window available to them between their acquisition of the card and the original card holder reporting the loss of the card to their issuing bank who take action to revoke or cancel the account (Slawsky and Zafar, 2005:101). Skimming is another form of plastic crime that takes place when a cardholder uses his card at any commercial establishment or cash machine. The details of the electromagnetic strip at the back of the card are copied onto a secondary storage device, which can later be replicated onto a counterfeit card, illegally cloned to resemble the details of the original, and reused by the fraudster for access to funds or illegal purchases. (Slawsky and Zafar, 2005:104). Another form of card crime growing in incidence is the ‘Card Not Present’ (CNP) variety. This occurs when the perpetrator makes a purchase t hrough mail order or telephone order, usually buying expensive merchandise, for their own personal gain, for either reselling it in the market-place or by tricking the merchant into refunding the value of the goods upon their return (Montague, 2004:12). Leonard and Lamb (2007:91) define identity theft as â€Å"afraud committed using the identifying information of another person†. As such, it comprises the misuse of information that is specific to an individual, usually involving â€Å"a partial and transient adoption (of the details)†¦in order to facilitate criminal activity† (Finch, 2002:86). In extreme cases, this could cause the victim huge financial losses, discomfort and social embarrassment where the protagonist attempts to use these details to derive material benefit at the expense of the victim. When applying the CRM process to this form of crime, the first step the security manager is required to take is the initial assessment phase, which involves evaluating the threats and areas of vulnerability in order to determine the level of risk. A number of tools are required at this stage, some of which are quantitative in nature, and others are qualitative (Fennelly, 2003:494). Quantitative analyses usually employ statistical sampling, based on mathematical calculations to assess the likelihood of a crime, extrapolated from results data (DePersia and Pennella, 1998:304). The aforementioned Rational Choice Theory is a related quantitative approach. Within the context of plastic fraud crime, application of this particular theory is exemplified through the regulated practice of profiling customers. In order to identify extraordinary behaviour financial institutions commonly track the regular transaction histories of their clientele. This is especially true of institutions that issue cards for credit purchases, viewing investment in database profiling of customer transaction histories as crucial. These systems make it possible to characterise potential ‘suspect’ incidents by programming patterns which trigger warnings including: sudden spending sprees, reaching the credit limit or exhausting the account balance, duplicate transactions of unlikely merchandise especially expensive items such as televisions, and an unusual avoidance of delivery services (Slawsky and Zafar, 2005:102). An example of automated programming used to detect uncharacteristic activity on card accounts is the Visa Intelligent Scoring Of Risk (VISOR) facility provided by the Visa network (Grabosky and Smith, 1998:170). The use of this CPA technique has improved the potential to diminish the effec t of fraudulent activity on both customers and institutions alike, by simultaneously preventing further theft and acting as a deterrent against aspiring felons. Qualitative assessments determine the chances of risk on a sliding scale from negligible to prohibitive based on the opinions, experience and knowledge of leading security management experts (Kovacich and Boni, 1999:192). Considering most plastic fraud takes place at the ‘Point of Sale’ (POS), and since highly skilled security managers cannot monitor everything at once, one of the most effective means of incorporating qualitative assessment into the CRM process is by implementing a thorough training regimen for employees, alongside a widespread awareness raising campaign aimed at educating customers and installation of permanent surveillance equipment such as CCTV (Horan, 1996:68-76). This dual approach instructs on the nefarious methods employed to misuse either cards or card information in order to create a front-line defence mechanism and enhance the fraud detection capacity of the operation. Any fraudulent activities intercepted by staff are rapidly communicated thro ughout the organisation, for instructive and investigative purposes, to further foster this self-regulative method (Horan, 1996:68). The assimilation of quantitative and qualitative analysis into banking industry best-practice CRM has resulted in the introduction of a number of effective controls designed specifically to curtail plastic fraud. One solution has been the introduction of embedded ‘microchip’ protection and PIN cards in the United Kingdom (Hoare, 2007:274). This security enhancement prevents the misuse of credit cards by requesting the card PIN for every transaction regardless of whether the customer is making a simple purchase or a cash withdrawal, thereby further reducing the risk of fraudulent transactions. This approach is then combined with customer advisories such as the need to keep cards and PIN information separate (Grabosky and Smith, 1991:170). When implementing crime risk management systems of this nature, however, there are two imperative considerations security managers must remain mindful of in advocating a particular method: probability and the associated cost-benefit outc omes. Proponents within crime management recommend that risk should always be viewed in a probabilistic context (Fischer and Green, 2004:139). For example, the recent collapse of the sub-prime mortgage market, beginning in the United States, has had a tremendous impact on global financial markets, however those organisations that viewed the probability of this event occurring as remote presumably installed fewer measures to insure against such a risk, thereby suffering the greatest losses. This example vindicates those weary observers who viewed this practice as dubious, although not criminal in the strictest sense, and who have continued to advocate for more rigorously stringent regulation of credit lending (Munro, Ford, Leishman, and Kofi Karley, 2005:1-3 26-30). The second, and arguably more important factor, is that the cost of CRM implementation should not exceed the benefits received to the institution in seeking to avoid the risk in the first instance (Culp, 2001:226). The indomitable pervasiveness of plastic fraud, although costly, does not quite warrant the installation of sophisticated risk management systems at all POS sites. One of the more dramatic recent proposals to counteract crimes of an identity fraud nature involves biometrically tagging individuals to a corresponding identification card in order to develop a log of all activities, which is then compiled into an ominous central database (Ahlefeld and Gaston, 2005:79). Although some view these measures as the only way possible of comprehensively monitoring and controlling such crimes, there are certainly many criticisms against this suggested method including the prohibitive cost of implementing and maintaining a system capable of delivering this service, the potential for sec urity breaches in the data system storing private records of citizens, and the associated infringements upon civil liberties and human rights likely to be raised in opposition to the proposal (Grant, 2008). Industry driven cost-benefit analysis is therefore a vital component of appropriate CRM design. There are innumerous benefits to implementing a CRM process within an organisation, regardless of the environment in which it is applied, in either the public or private sphere, which is why this approach has steadily grown in practice (McLaughlin and Muncie, 2006: 363-364). It is the essentially proactive nature of the approach taken in CRM, allowing for the mitigation and prevention of potentially disastrous outcomes, that explains why it is so well favoured. The banking industry is not alone in its vulnerability to losses through fraudulent practices; indeed according to calculations published by the United Kingdom (UK) Home Office Identity Fraud Steering Committee (IFSC), it is estimated that identity fraud represents an annual cost of  £1.7 billion to the UK economy (Home Office, 2006). The significance of this threat is a partial motivating factor behind the financial services sector adopting an industry-wide approach to CRM shared regulatory practices. The Credit Industry Fraud Avoidance System (CIFAS) is representative of this trend, working in conjunction with institutions across the entire financial sector and in the general interest of the banking fraternity. These cooperative systems are then linked to the broader national security management infrastructure, and though ongoing consultations and data sharing, a complex relationship has been established to combat pervasive and costly crimes, including plastic fraud (CIFAS, 2007). This level of cooperation was recently formalised in the UK through Royal Assent to the Serious Crimes Act 2007 for the prevention of fraud through shared information with anti-fraud organisations (Office of PSI, 2007: Part 3, Chapter 1, section 68). Thereby the CRM approach of individual institutions informs industry standards to nati onal policing activities, all working cooperatively in a sophisticated network dedicated to crime management. This cooperative approach by the banking industry to CRM processes has a cascading effect. The shared CRM network enables participants to access a continuous risk assessment feedback mechanism, allowing the entire industry to maintain a collective pool of knowledge easily referenced to assess the potential risks associated with a specific action, either not previously anticipated or as part of a new initiative by an individual institution, creating unprecedented levels of cost-benefit sharing and exemplifying the potential of widespread best-practice implementation (CIFAS, 2007 and FSA, 2008). Regulative bodies such as the Financial Services Authority (FSA), constituted with statutory powers through the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Office of PSI, 2000: Part 1, section 1), provide a form of protection for the industry against both internal and external fraud, by monitoring, evaluating and reporting practices across the sector. The authority is an industry funded, non-gover nmental organisation, empowered to enforce its recommendations (FSA, 2008). Alongside the membership requirement to voluntarily commit to full disclosure regulative authorities such as this further enable the industry to self-regulate, mitigate against threats and further spread the cost of CRM across the sector. The systemic level of commitment exemplified by the banking industry’s approach to CRM of threats such as plastic fraud, and the broader commitment to combating identity related fraud in the United Kingdom, demonstrate the high level of cooperative action required to effectively combat specific crimes and realise the full potential of CRM processes at large. Both Gill, through his three foci for risk management decision-making (1998:15), and Young’s 1992 theory of the ‘square of crime’ (Department of Criminology, 2003:1-15) call for multi-sectoral simultaneous high-level intervention for effective crime prevention outcomes. The combinations of: institutions and their customers, advocating for changes in public and private policy to mitigate specific threats, activated by administrators and legislators alike, must be in alignment with factors such as Gill’s means to ‘change offenders’ (1998:16), where appropriate punishment is meted again st identified perpetrators to increase the risk of offending, in concert with a palpable level of public opprobrium (Department of Criminology, 2003:1-21). Whilst a consideration of the plastic fraud approach has illustrated the high level of cooperation required between all impacted by crime, in order to more effectively prevent losses, a brief reflection of the United Nations system further reveals the evolution of CRM at work. CRM processes are performed in two simultaneous approaches within the UN system. CRM practices are now more closely assimilated into the Security Risk Assessment (SRA) processes of the organisation to more effectively combat risk from both internal and external threats (Australian Capital Territory Insurance Authority, 2004: 4-10). CRM and SRA processes are continually reviewed, evaluated, reassessed and adapted as necessary; especially in light of recent attacks such as those on UN staff members in Iraq and Algeria. Updated recommendations are communicated broadly to mainstream their approach across all activities and in order to achieve the aims of comprehensive security management across their global operati ons. The mission of the UN Security Management System (UNSMS) overall is â€Å"to ‘enable’ the effective and efficient conduct of UN activities while ensuring the security, safety and well being of staff as a high priority† (United Nations, 2002:2, Part II, para 3). To achieve this mandate the UNSM system requires maximum coordination and cooperation at all levels to facilitate workable ‘funds and programmes’ so they are enabled to perform their primary objective of delivering aid as appropriate. The ‘management techniques’ discussed by Gill (1998: 14-15) are increasingly being incorporated to general UN practices; for example in the manner of staff and management recruitment practices which emphasise security as the responsibility of all staff employed under the auspices of the UN (United Nations, 2006:4-2). In order to fully integrate this approach, from the ground up and across country programs, a Security Management Team is allocated to meet regularly at the ‘head of mission’ level. These senior level fora are guided by the senior country representative of the UN Department of Safety and Security (DSS), who are â€Å"responsible for providing leadership, operational support and oversight of the security management system to enable the safest and most efficient conduct of the programmes and activities of the United Nations† (United Nations, 2006:2-1, para 2.5). The UNSMS framework exemplifies Gill’s risk management recommendations whereby the mandate of security managers is to be a stakeholder in program operational objectives, enabling their effective fulfilment, and conversely, the managers and staff of each program are a stakeholder in the security of their own operations (1998:14-15). This cultural shift from the traditional perception of security as ‘working in isolation’ allows for an increased level of protection to permeate the organisation and for all staff to enjoy the successful achievement of operational objectives in a safe and secure environment. Although the UNSM system provides one positive example, the reality is that changing internal traditional operational cultures, to incorporate risk prevention as a perceived responsibility for all managers, remains a significant challenge (Handy, 1993: 209). Closer inspection of the plastic fraud approach to the CRM process also exposes a number other difficulties faced by the security manager when implementing procedures to prevent exposure to risk. The crime risk manager may be criticised for displaying a disposition to crime displacement, which results in a transfer of risk rather than absolute dissolution. â€Å"Crime displacement occurs when security measures are effective in preventing crime†, where they are in place, â€Å"and forces the criminal to go elsewhere†¦to commit their crimes†, where there may be less security infrastructure. Displacement could be represented by a shift in time (temporal), shift in target venue (spatial), tactics, or perpetrator (V ellani, 2006:169). As intimated above, the high level of cross-sectoral cooperation required to truly spotlight and diminish specific crimes is often beyond the means of small-scale security managers to influence. Even in the case of confederated cooperation illustrated by the banking industry to mitigate plastic fraud, the crime still exists. Where the perpetrator commits isolated instances of plastic fraud there may be a low risk of detection, incidents may not be recorded or reported and therefore there is a perceived lack of punishment associated with the offence, which can contribute to the overall seriousness of the problem (Department of Criminology, 2003: 1-21). Indeed the CIFAS prevention service lists the three documents most frequently utilised to commit identity related fraud offences as â€Å"non-UK passports, utility bills and then UK passports† (CIFAS, 2008). As CRM policy shifts its attention toward the greater risk area a gap is left behind for small-scale, undetected perpetrato rs that nonetheless contribute to an area of fraudulent activity that still represents major losses for credit providers. The major challenge in taking the CRM process approach is in designing the system based on ‘real’ threats and with enough flexibility to adapt to a constantly changing environment. CRM processes require constant review, evaluation, reassessment and adaptation, and even then there is no guarantee that risk will always be averted (Gill, 1998: 17). There may be those whose commitment to the process waivers, governments and their policies may change, societal reactions to certain risk may be attenuated, criminals evolve to increasingly sophisticated methods as their use of technology improves and victim organisations may change their directions, reforming appropriately as they go (Department of Criminology, 2003: 1-22). Therefore, implementation of a CRM process requires a scrupulous cost-benefit examination, credible and quality information from which the risk assessment is drawn, and a wholesale commitment by the organisation in order to derive maximum worth (Gill, 1998: 1 6-17). If the approach is too conservative the risk may be that tangible business opportunities are unnecessarily overlooked whilst simultaneously failing to address the risks involved. Finally, the security manager must also control the level of expectation associated with their anticipated levels of success, since it is unlikely for even the most reliable system to remain unscathed. In conclusion, almost every act in business involves an element of risk: customer habits change, new competitors appear, and factors outside the sphere of control could delay a project. However thorough risk analysis and management can help to inform decision making and minimize potential disruptions, especially where there is a sufficient balance between mitigating the risk and the cost associated in doing so. Evolving CRM processes that utilise decentralised risk management techniques in combination with a centralised coordination approach are becoming accepted best practice, with the result that individual firms are able to adapt the framework to best suit their preferences and internal conditions. It would therefore appear that the discipline is ‘coming of age’ which is evidenced through the prevalence of its practice in the mainstream. However the combination of the ever-present elements of change and the unforeseen represent the greatest challenges to the security manager in mitigating risk. The reality is that they can only apply their experience, offer their informed advice to key stakeholders, and manage the outcomes, whatever they may be. References Ahlefeld, H. von. and Gaston, J. (2005) Lessons in Danger, OECD Online Bookshop. Air Force Material Command Pamphlet (1997) ‘Acquisition: Risk Management’, AFMC Pamphlet 63-101,, (accessed 1 March 2008). Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Insurance Authority (2004) ‘Guide to Risk Management’, Risk Management Guide Toolkit, ACT Insurance Authority, (Accessed 1 March 2008). Bridgeman, C. (1996) ‘Crime Risk Management: Making it work’, Crime Detection and Prevention Series Paper 70, Police Research Group, London: Home Office. Clarke, R.V. and Cornish, D.B. (1985) ‘Modelling Offenders’ Decisions: A framework for Research and Policy’, Crime and Justice, 6: 147-185. Cohen, L.E. and Felson, M. (1979) ‘Social Change and Crime rate trends’, American Sociological Review, 44: 588-608. Cox, L. A. (2005) Quantitative Health Risk Analysis Methods, Springer. Credit Industry Fraud Avoidance System (CIFAS). (2007) ‘New Fraud Prevention Power Will Save  £Millions’, Press Centre, 30 October 2007,, (accessed 1 March 2008). Credit Industry Fraud Avoidance System (CIFAS). (2008) ‘2007 Fraud Trends’, Press Centre, 28 January 2008,, (accessed 1 March 2008). Culp, C. L. (2001) The Risk Management Process, John Wiley and Sons. DePersia, A.T. and Pennella, J.J. (1998) Enforcement and Security Technologies, SPIE. Decker, R.J. (2001) ‘Homeland Security: Key Elements of a Risk Management Approach’, Testimony: Before the Subcommittee on National Security, Veteran Affairs and International Relations; House Committee on Government Reform, GAO-02-150T, United States: General Accounting Office. Department of Criminology (2003) ‘Unit 1: Crime Risk Management’, Module 2: Applied Crime Management, Department of Criminology, 1-5 to 1-23. Fennelly, L.J. (2003) Handbook of Loss Prevention and Crime Prevention, Butterworth-Heinemann. Financial Services Authority (FSA). (2008) ‘Who are we’,, (accessed 1 March 2008). Finch, E. (2002) ‘What a tangled web we weave: identity theft and the Internet’, in Yvonne Jewkes (ed.) Dot.cons: Crime, deviance and identity on the Internet, Willan Publishing, 86-104. Fischer, R. J. and Green, G. (2004) Introduction to Security (7th Edn), Butterworth-Heinemann. Gill, M. (1998) ‘Chapter 1: Introduction’, in Martin Gill (ed.) Crime at Work Volume II: Increasing the Risk to Offenders, Leicester: Perpetuity Press Ltd, 11-23. Grabosky, P.N. and Smith, R.G. (1998) Crime in the Digital Age: Controlling Telecommunications and Cyberspace Illegalities, Transaction Publishers. Grant. I. (2008) ‘Wave of criticism hits government ID card relaunch’ in,, (accessed 9 March 2008). Handy, C. (1993) Understanding Organizations (4th edn), Harmondsworth: Penguin. Home Office (2006) ‘Identity Fraud puts  £1.7bn Hole in Britains Pocket’, Press Releases, 2 February 2006,, accessed 1 March 2008). Horan, D.J. (1996) The Retailer’s Guide to Loss Prevention and Security, CRC Press. Hoare, J. (2007) ‘Deceptive Evidence: Challenges in Measuring Fraud’ in J.M. Hough, and M.G. Maxfield (eds) Surveying Crime in the 21st Century, Criminal Justice Press. Kovacich, G. L. and Boni, W. C. (1999) High Technology Crime Investigator’s Handbook, Elsevier. Leonard, R. and Lamb J. (2007) Credit Repair (8th Edn),Nolo. McLaughlin, E. and Muncie, J. (2006) The Sage Dictionary of Criminology, Sage Publications. Montague, D.A. (2004) Fraud Prevention Techniques for Credit Card Fraud, Trafford Publishing. Munro, M., Ford, J., Leishman, C. and Kofi Karley, N. (2005) Lending to higher risk borrowers: Sub-prime credit and sustainable home ownership, Joseph Rowntree Foundation,, (accessed 1 March 2008). Nalla, M. and Newman, G

Friday, September 20, 2019

Gender Stereotypes in Young Children

Gender Stereotypes in Young Children à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Sugar and Spice and everything nice, thats what little girls are made of. Society today has made a clear cut line about what is appropriate for a little boy and what is appropriate for a little girl. Society has made that distinction through gender stereotyping. If you walk into a preschool class room today, little girls will be playing dress-up with fairy and princess costumes while the boys will be tackling each other or playing with dump trucks. Even though many people believe that gender is not learned, but instinctual instead, there may be outside influences on gender roles that children fall victim to, for example parents influence gender roles by the language they use and media and toys reinforce gender stereotypes in children by character portrayal and advertisements. There are many different parenting styles that are seen today. Psychologist Diana Baumrind discovered four basic styles of parenting; authoritarian, permissive-indifferent, permissive-indulgent, and authoritative (Morris, 310). Regardless of the parenting style that one family opts for, there seems to be a common thread; the majority of parents will dress little boys in blue and little girls in pink. The thought process behind this is so that their gender can be identified properly by an outside source. No parent wants to be walking through a store with their little boy and have a stranger ask, How old is she? Interestingly enough however, according to the article Whats Wrong with Cinderella? author Peggy Orenstein points out when colors were first introduced to the nursery in the early part of the twentieth century, pink was considered the more masculine hue, a pastel version of red. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, was thought to be dainty. Somewhere along the line, the reverse was thought true; pink was more feminine and blue was more masculine, and is so enforced by todays standards. Another example of how strongly parents influence gender was learned when an experiment was performed at Harvard University. Male babies were dressed in pink outfits and were then given to adults to handle under the impression that they were girls. The language used with the boy babies dressed in pink fell into the female stereotype, while the girl babies dressed in blue fell into the male stereotype, being called handsome and tough (Pruett). Language is a big influence on gender interpretation. Often we tell boys not to cry and explain things with different tones for boys versus girls. If a little girl hits a friend, parents/caregivers might use a gentler phrase like, gentle hands on your friends please. If a little boy hits a friend, parents/caregivers might just shrug the action off as Boys will be boys as the common saying goes or raise their voices to get the point across more strongly, We DO NOT hit our friends! Even the compliments that adults bestow upon children can be gender stereotyping. When you tell a little a girl how pretty she looks in her dress is an illustration of that. Parents lead by example. Their children learn behavior from what they see their parents doing, even if unintentional. If a child sees their mother as the one who always does the laundry and cooks the meals and the father as the one who always takes the trash out, then chances are that the child will follow the same roles when as they grow up. Media also plays a large part in where children learn about what their gender role is. Disney movies are a prime example of this. In these movies, the leading female character, usually a princess, is sweet, romantic, daydreams about Prince Charming, and almost always wears a dress in a pastel color. On the other hand, the same Disney movie can represent the male population watching with a prince, who is usually strong, willing to fight, and always gets the girl at the end. These characters often lead to a misconception of what is feminine and what is masculine. On the spectrum of gender identity, Disney may represent the extremes of what the appropriate gender role is. Advertisements are often seen using gender as a marketing strategy for toys or games. If you look at a commercial for Tonka Trucks, there wont be a little girl to be seen in these ads. However, if you see a commercial for Easy-Bake oven, the opposite will be true. There will be no boys in those commercials. Seeing these on television demonstrates to children what should be an appropriate toy for a little boy and what should be appropriate for a little girl. Even the behaviors of children portrayed in television advertisements are stereotypic. Boys are often seen as active and domineering while the girls are portrayed as shy or overly silly. These advertisements usually lead to the purchase of the toys shown for the sex it was targeted to. Parents often wonder if you give a baby doll to a little boy or a dump truck to a little girl, will they be gender confused. Even the most new-age parents might find it bizarre to see their little boys walking around preschool with a purse and in dress shoes. Boys have a harder time crossing the gender line, whereas some parents of females might think that its alright for their daughters to play with dump trucks or Legos. This does not mean that the son will be more feminine and the daughter will be a tom-boy, but a majority of parents do not want to risk that. Not everyone believes, however, that gender is strictly a learned behavior. In 2009, Texas AM University used eye tracking software to measure infants interest in either male or female toys (Shaffer). According to an article published in 2010, the author M. Fox, found the results to be extremely informative: Hormone levels in the saliva, as well as finger dimensions that indicate prenatal testosterone exposure were measured to see if these things could explain why the infants visually preferred certain toys over others. The results revealed that while the girls preferences werent affected by hormone levels at all, the boys preferences were affected by both current and prenatal hormone levels. It appears that the higher the presence of testosterone at the time of the test, the greater the preference for groups of figures over individual figures, and those who indicated a higher exposure to prenatal testosterone had a stronger preference for the ball over the doll. This means that the boys showed an optical penchant for gender specific toys. In an article in New Scientist, Linda Geddes states that research has been done to show that the introduction of changing levels of testosterone and estrogen while babies are in utero may also have some sway in which toys boys and girls pick. There are other theorists that believe that there is a cognitive connection to gender development. Carol Lynn Martin and Diane Ruble are two such theorists. They discuss Kohlbergs theory of gender development is and what the impact is of knowing your gender does not change. This is an important fact for children to learn, generally setting the concepts of what is correct behavior for your gender type. Martin and Ruble think that there are important cognitive themes for gender development, rather than the influence of a specific outside source. The first important theme discussed is The Emergence of Gender Identity and Its Consequences. In this stage, it is allegedly general knowledge that children understand that there are two different types of genders, and they have the realization that they fall into one of those two categorizing sexes. This first theme is then broken down into two sub-categories, Evaluative Consequences and Motivational and Informational Consequences. The former meaning that the child understands and identifies one group as their own and sees this group as a positive. The latter sub-category means that one the child picks a gender to identify with and while the want to understand the opposite sex dwindles, the individual seems only interested it their own gender identity. The second theme that is thought to be a cognitive gender identity link is Active, Self-Initiated View of Gender Development and the final theme is Developmental Patterns. In these two themes, the thought is that the main focus is learning about the social gender group that they most identify with, and forming and developing the characteristics that are most familiar with the identified gender. While exploring the cognitive connection to gender, many place a strong association to motivational significances and developmental configurations of the gender identity theory. Even though many theorists believe that gender is not a learned behavior, but you are born knowing the difference between appropriate male behaviors and toys and appropriate female behaviors and toys, others disagree. Those people state that there are many possible outside influences on children when they are learning their gender roles in society. Some also believe that being aware of specific gender stereotypes has a connection to how one behaves. The media and toys that children do see and use play an intricate part in the concept of gender roles and parents influence gender identity by using specific language and actions. Whether or not gender is identity is solely obtained by influence or is pre-determined by some cognitive connection, it is an intriguing issue. Should boys and girls be able to make the choice of the toy that they want to play with or what their favorite color is going to be regardless of what society claims is normal? With the role that parents or caregivers pl ay in gender role identification, they should learn different methods for breaking stereotypes. Adults could make sure that they use the same language for both sexes or become involved in activities such as cuddling with boys or wrestling with girls. Connecting children of both sexes in such a manner is a good way to encourage the cycles of gender stereotyping to end.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

To Homeschool or Not to Homeschool, That is the Question Essay

When a child walks out the door to his first day of school, a parent may ponder about his child’s future. Will he be a doctor or a lawyer? Is music or art in his future? Although most of the questions parents deliberate are positive in nature, fears also arise. Will he be smart? Will he fit in socially with others? From a child’s educational to social growth, parents have a responsibility to navigate their child down a path which will yield the greatest reward. Of these paths are public schools, private schools, online school or homeschooling. Within these schooling options, numerous factors enter into the final determination. Time commitment and money required are two of the biggest factors parents consider when choosing how their children will be educated. Caring parents want the best for their children and know they have only one chance to make the right educational decision. Although the homeschooling option may have some positive attributes steering par ents toward choosing this method, the negative aspects prove it is not the most beneficial choice for a student or his family. Different scenarios of instruction fall under the homeschooling umbrella. Whether a child is actually taught at home with a curriculum his parents either purchased or drafted themselves, or the child is taught online via a home-study course, all are types of homeschooling. In addition, some parents practice a homeschooling method known as unschooling. In this situation, parents fill their house with â€Å"encyclopedias, history books, art supplies, games and other learning tools that children are free to take up if or when they choose.† (Home schooling). This type of schooling uses daily life lessons to incorporate the core subject learning... ...r. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. â€Å"Preface to ‘Why Do Parents Choose to Homeschool?’.† Homeschooling. Ed. Myra Immell. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Current Controversies. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context.Web. 25 Apr. 2012. Shives, Steve. â€Å"Homeschooling Curricula Do Not Meet Academic Standards.† Homeschooling. Ed. Noah Berlatsky. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. From â€Å"Homeschoolers Who Don’t Learn Science Shouldn’t Receive a Diploma.† American Chronicle. 2008. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. â€Å"Tuition & Class Fees.† The Academy of Creative Learning. 2012. N.p., n.d., Web. 30 Apr. 2012. Wilson, Jacque. â€Å"Unschoolers learn what they want, when they want.† 2011. N.p., 3 Aug. 2011. Web. 27 April 2012.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Marketing and Politics :: Globalization, Culture, Informative

Global and Domestic Marketing Cultural: Globalization is an inevitable process, and so are the inevitable issues with different cultures. On the one hand, the world is becoming more homogeneous, and distinctions between national markets are not only fading but, for some products, will disappear altogether. This means that cultural difference is a global issue, not just the United States. On the other hand, the differences among nations, regions, and ethnic groups in terms of cultural factors are far from resolved. It is suggested that the claims for "a right to culture" by national states in recent years can be important criteria for trade policy making, intellectual property rights protection, and the resource for national interests. From a marketing point of view it is very important for marketers to realize the sensitivity of cultural differences. To be aware of and sensitive to the cultural differences is a major premise for the success of the marketplace. To determine the cultural understanding of market means that the professional should positively identify cultural factors that can be used to ease any marketing program. These factors may or may not exist in the targeted markets. One must also keep in mind that marketing can also influence culture. Such is the case in Mexico, where the United States has had such a cultural influence. Currently all the Jones in Mexico want to bye American product and mimic what Americans do. Promotion, for instance, is strongly influenced by the language. Product acceptance is affected by culturally based attitudes towards change. And distribution is influenced by social institutions, such as Versace.