Monday, December 30, 2019

Stages Of Alcoholism Leading Cirrhosis Of The Liver Essay

Stages of Alcoholism Leading to Cirrhosis of the Liver Mikal Norvell Fortis Institute, Dr. Bassant Abstract This paper describes, briefly, the stages of the alcoholism as it slowly damages the liver, and finally results in permanent, irreversible damage called cirrhosis. Excessive alcohol consumption, or alcoholism is the number one cause of cirrhosis in the U.S. Though tolerance levels are different for each individual, daily consumption of more than ten alcoholic drinks over ten or more years contribute to a higher risk of cirrhosis. The first part of the paper will describe the liver and what the liver does. I will also discuss different levels of drinking leading to alcoholism. Finally, the paper will also discuss the deterioration levels leading to the signs and symptoms of cirrhosis. Keywords: Cirrhosis, a chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis. Stages of Alcoholism Leading to Cirrhosis of the Liver The liver is the upper part of the abdomen and it the only organ is the body that can regenerate itself, which is why a person can donate part of their liver to another. What does a liver do? The liver stores glycogen, a.k.a. fuel, for the body. It helps process fats and proteins from digested food. The liver makes a protein that enables blood to clot. It processes some oral medications, and removes poisons, toxins, and alcohol from theShow MoreRelatedCirrhosis : The Leading Cause Of Death977 Words   |  4 PagesCirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States. Cirrhosis affects one of the largest organs in the body, the liver. It is a condition that slowly worsens the liver and is unable to function normally due to chronic injury. Cirrhosis consists of four stages with the fourth stage being the most advanced stage of cirrhosis. When healthy liver cells are damaged and replaced by scar tissue (fibrosis) it’s known as a degenerative disease called cirrho sis. Chronic alcoholism is the leadingRead MoreCirrhosis of the Liver1542 Words   |  7 PagesCirrhosis of the Liver Cirrhosis of the Liver: Causes, Detection and Prevention University of Phoenix- Online Campus Cirrhosis of the Liver is a horrible disease that takes the lives of many people every year. There are many causes, symptoms, ways to diagnose and treatments that surround this disease as well as many ways that this fatal disease can be prevented. The liver is a key organ when it comes to making the body function properly (National Digestive Diseases Information ClearinghouseRead MoreCauses and Effects of Alcohol Abuse955 Words   |  4 PagesApril 22, 2013 English 101 Alcoholism is the excessive and usually uncontrollable use of alcoholic drinks. There are many symptoms, complications, treatments and ways of prevention for alcoholism. Certain groups of people may be at a greater risk than others for several different reasons. There are numerous factors in why people may become addicted. Usually, a variety of factors contribute to the development of alcoholism. Social factors such as the influence of peers, familyRead MoreCirrhosis of the Liver1523 Words   |  7 PagesCirrhosis is the 11th leading cause of death by disease in the United States. Almost one half of these are alcohol related. About 25,000 people die from cirrhosis each year. Description/Definition Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of normal, healthy liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue, blocking the flow of blood through the organ and preventing it from working as it should, as well as regenerative nodules leading to progressive loss of liver functionRead MorePatient Educational Plan1346 Words   |  6 PagesThe bulk of the ETOH is metabolized in the liver. ETOH abuse produces functional and structural changes in the GI tract, such as in the stomach, small intestine, liver, and pancreas (Geokas, Lieber, French, Halsted 1981). The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism website (2005) sites statistics indicating 28,175 deaths in 2005 were a direct result of liver cirrhosis. The website goes on to state, â€Å"In 1997, liver cirrhosis was the 10th leading cause of death and accounted for approximatelyRead MoreAcute Liver Failure ( Alf )1290 Words   |  6 Pages1. Introduction The liver is the one of the most important organs in the body, it helps maintain the body’s normal activities with many essential functions such as drug detoxification, also the liver is considered the main site for metabolism inside the body, It organize many metabolic reactions in the body, as well as providing the body with major secretory functions.(1) Liver dysfunction is related to the abnormality in the liver’s ability to perform its normal functions, mainly due to exposureRead MoreThe Effects Of Prenatal Exposure On Alcohol1389 Words   |  6 PagesAbuse and Alcoholism, alcohol can affect different parts of the human body such as the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, the immune system, and plays a role in cancer (NIH, n.d.). In the brain, alcohol can intervene in communication pathways, which affects how the brain works. Alcohol can cause many different heart defects and disorders such as cardiomyopathy, irregular heartbeats, stroke, high blood pressure and in some cases heart attack. Alcohol proves to be very damaging to the liver, especiallyRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol On Human Cells1409 Words   |  6 PagesAbuse and Alcoholism, alcohol can affect different parts of the human body such as the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, the immune system, and plays a role in cancer (NIH, n.d.). In the brain, alcohol can intervene in communication pathways, which affects how the brain works. Alcohol can cause many different heart defects and disorders such as cardiomyopathy, irregular heartbeats, stroke, high blood pressure and in some cases heart attack. Alcohol proves to be very damaging to the liver, especiallyRead MoreAlcohol and Drug Abuse Essay1671 Words   |  7 Pagesfor those under age. To some college students, heavy drinking that leads to vomiting is not alcohol abuse but simply having a good time. Alcoholism or alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder characterized by compulsive, repeated, and excessive consumption of alcohol to the extent that the individuals health, social and economic functioning is impaired. Alcoholism has four symptoms namely craving, loss of control, physical dependence and tolerance. Craving is a strong urge or need to consume alcoholRead MorePreventative Measures And Lifestyle Modifications That Can Reduce The Chances Of Developing Liver Cancer891 Words   |  4 Pagesthat can reduce the chances of developing liver cancer. The avoidance of viral hepatitis is imperative, being vaccinated against hepatitis B during childhood offers increased defense against the disease causing virus. Avoiding intravenous drug use, and other factors directly related to the contraction of hepatitis B and C is also key. Excessive alcohol consumption is known to contribute to liver damage, more specifically cirrhosis. Thus avoiding alcoholism is an important lifestyle facto r in the prevention

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave Modern Comparison - 791 Words

â€Å"The Truman Show† and Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave† writings were astonishingly similar in theory. Even though these two writings were written almost 2500 years apart, there were many key concepts alike. In both writings there was an imprisonment of a man from childhood to adulthood. Both of these men had a series of events occur as they grew older, which allowed their eyes and mind to see and process the truth of the world and to forget their ignorance. â€Å"... I proceed to say, go in to compare our natural condition, so far as education and ignorance are concerned, to a state of things like the following.† This statement from Plato truly states the theory of mind in which is portrayed in both â€Å"The Truman Show† and Plato. As stated in†¦show more content†¦Today there is not much trust in the world; relationships are sometimes one sided and real life comes with a lot of pain. By the director, Peter Weir creating an alternate world, he was creating a perfect world. Maybe this is the director’s hope and dream for society. However, today’s society is full of war, hunger, disaster, hate, violence and poverty; all of this with no ways of stopping it. Ancient Athenian’s society would have been filled with many ideas of how things were and every day people would just accept this; the people would not question things. Today people think that they question ideas and rules, but how many theories, regulations and norms do we accept every day as normal. We today are not much different than those people of AncientShow MoreRelatedPlatos 4 Analogies Of The Republic Analysis1579 Words   |  7 Pagesanalogies to represent his theory of justice in the ideal state. The four analogies include the ship, the sun, the divided line, and the cave. The analogies of the ship, and the cave are used by Plato to represent the people of the state and proving his argument that philosophers are the true rulers of the state. The divided line and the sun analogies also supports Plato’s point about philosophers obtaining intellectual knowledge apposed to the ordinary citizens who only have sensible knowledge. PlatoRead MorePlato s Cave Allegory : Textual Analysis1300 Words   |  6 PagesPlato’s Cave Allegory A textual analysis â€Æ' Plato has been documented as one of history’s great thinkers, he was a student of Socrates learned how to think of the greater aspects in life and asking questions about life. He created a school for others to learn, to question the truth and broaden their horizons. In Plato’s The Allegory of the Cave, he concentrated on human perception and willingness to advance knowledge by looking beyond surroundings and seeking the truth. His Cave Allegory was aboutRead MoreModern Technology And Its Effect On The Mindset Of The Current Generation1572 Words   |  7 Pagespossibility that it has inadvertently intellectually stunted the minds of our generation. The recent book described in essay topic one highlights on the true integrity of modern technology and its affect on the mindset of the current generation. The author actively addresses the limitations placed on knowledge by the current misuse of modern technology. The book centers on the author’s argument that the current generation is more self-obsessed as well as less intelligent and literate than any other previousRead MorePlato’s Allegory of the Cave and The Matrix Essay2251 Words   |  10 PagesThe Republic is considered to be one of Plato’s most storied legacies. Plato recorded many different philosophical ideals in his writings. Addressing a wide variety of topics from justice in book one, to knowledge, enlightenment, and the senses as he does in book seven. In his seventh book, when discussing the concept of knowledge, he is virtually addressing the clichà © â€Å"seeing is believing†, while attempting to validate the roots of our knowledge. By his use of philosophical themes, Plato is ableRead MoreComparing The Matrix With Readings From Plato And Descartes1023 Words   |  5 Pagesreadings from Plato and Descartes This essay will discuss The Matrix, from synopsis of the following; The Republic by Plato, depicting the famous cave allegory, and Meditations on First Philosophy by Descartes, offering doubt that some senses are accurate. By examining these two readings, and the movie, it will allow the author to show some comparisons, and to show how they are also different as this essay indicates the world is very real. The Matrix In The Matrix, Neo realizes hisRead MoreThe Matrix the Cave and Meditations Essay1829 Words   |  8 PagesThe Matrix, The Cave And Meditations PHIL 201 John L. Hill II Liberty University John Hill Professor Allyn Kyes Philosophy 201 October 18, 2012 The Matrix, The Cave And Meditations Thesis: There are many similarities in the Matrix ( Wachowski, Andy, and Lana Wachowski 1999 ), The Allegory of the Cave ( Plato ) and Meditation I of The Things of Which We May Doubt ( Decartes, 1641 ). It appears as you take a close look at the Matrix that it is a retelling of â€Å"TheRead MorePlato And Aristotle s View On Knowledge Essay1297 Words   |  6 Pagesdevelopment of human beings and their mindsets. Although Plato’s view on knowledge describes the internal predisposed essence of all Forms and the need for a superior being to extract them from the student, Aristotle’s outlook resides as more reliable and realistic due to his beliefs in the premise of knowledge in the sensation and perception, with continuing development in memory, experience, art and science, and, ultimately, true wisdom. In many of Plato’s works, he discusses Socrates’ lessons and quarrelsRead More Plato Contrasted with Confucius Essay1245 Words   |  5 Pagesa progressive society. In his work The Republic, specifically The Allegory of the Cave, Plato gives a vivid picture of a society under the guidance of certain restrictions, keeping the people under control. The picture presented by Plato is of men kept in isolation within a cave in such a way that they are only permitted to see what is in front of them: the shadows cast of objects being carried along a path running through the cave. Within this metaphor of a controlled society, Plato shows how menRead MoreThe Flaws of the Socratic Method1798 Words   |  8 PagesThe Flaws of the Socratic Method In Plato’s Republic, as well as in most of his other works, the philosopher writes dialogues between the character of his mentor, Socrates, and various figures meant to illustrate contradictory positions. He carefully scripts the engagements in a form of discussion now called the Socratic Method, where Socrates critiques the positions of the other characters in order to find flaws in inaccurate arguments. Although this method is prevalent even today, I will makeRead More`` Harrison Bergeron `` By Kurt Vonnegut1875 Words   |  8 Pagesare de-emphasized or do not exist in many dystopian settings. The governments are usually operating under a police state, and leader’s offer many promises that often turn out to be only lies (Knox). In Vonnegut works, Harrison Bergeron shows how a modern day society is manipulated by the government to make everyone equal. Unfortunately they have implement amendments 211, 212, and 213 to the Constitution; every American is fully equal, meaning that no one is uglier, weaker, or slower than anyone else

Friday, December 13, 2019

Deception Point Page 107 Free Essays

Rachel fell onto her back against the cockpit’s rear wall. Half submerged in sloshing water, she stared straight up at the leaking dome, hovering over her like a giant skylight. Outside was only night†¦ and thousands of tons of ocean pressing down. We will write a custom essay sample on Deception Point Page 107 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Rachel willed herself to get up, but her body felt dead and heavy. Again her mind reeled backward in time to the icy grip of a frozen river. â€Å"Fight, Rachel!† her mother was shouting, reaching down to pull her out of the water. â€Å"Grab on!† Rachel closed her eyes. I’m sinking. Her skates felt like lead weights, dragging her down. She could see her mother lying spread-eagle on the ice to disperse her own weight, reaching out. â€Å"Kick, Rachel! Kick with your feet!† Rachel kicked as best as she could. Her body rose slightly in the icy hole. A spark of hope. Her mother grabbed on. â€Å"Yes!† her mother shouted. â€Å"Help me lift you! Kick with your feet!† With her mother pulling from above, Rachel used the last of her energy to kick with her skates. It was just enough, and her mother dragged Rachel up to safety. She dragged the soaking Rachel all the way to the snowy bank before collapsing in tears. Now, inside the growing humidity and heat of the sub, Rachel opened her eyes to the blackness around her. She heard her mother whispering from the grave, her voice clear even here in the sinking Triton. Kick with your feet. Rachel looked up at the dome overhead. Mustering the last of her courage, Rachel clambered up onto the cockpit chair, which was oriented almost horizontally now, like a dental chair. Lying on her back, Rachel bent her knees, pulled her legs back as far as she could, aimed her feet upward, and exploded forward. With a wild scream of desperation and force, she drove her feet into the center of the acrylic dome. Spikes of pain shot into her shins, sending her brain reeling. Her ears thundered suddenly, and she felt the pressure equalize with a violent rush. The seal on the left side of the dome gave way, and the huge lens partially dislodged, swinging open like a barn door. A torrent of water crashed into the sub and drove Rachel back into her chair. The ocean thundered in around her, swirling up under her back, lifting her now off the chair, tossing her upside down like a sock in a washing machine. Rachel groped blindly for something to hold on to, but she was spinning wildly. As the cockpit filled, she could feel the sub begin a rapid free fall for the bottom. Her body rammed upward in the cockpit, and she felt herself pinned. A rush of bubbles erupted around her, twisting her, dragging her to the left and upward. A flap of hard acrylic smashed into her hip. All at once she was free. Twisting and tumbling into the endless warmth and watery blackness, Rachel felt her lungs already aching for air. Get to the surface! She looked for light but saw nothing. Her world looked the same in all directions. Blackness. No gravity. No sense of up or down. In that terrifying instant, Rachel realized she had no idea which way to swim. Thousands of feet beneath her, the sinking Kiowa chopper crumpled beneath the relentlessly increasing pressure. The fifteen high-explosive, antitank AGM-114 Hellfire missiles still aboard strained against the compression, their copper liner cones and spring-detonation heads inching perilously inward. A hundred feet above the ocean floor, the powerful shaft of the megaplume grabbed the remains of the chopper and sucked it downward, hurling it against the red-hot crust of the magma dome. Like a box of matches igniting in series, the Hellfire missiles exploded, tearing a gaping hole through the top of the magma dome. Having surfaced for air, and then dove again in desperation, Michael Tolland was suspended fifteen feet underwater scanning the blackness when the Hellfire missiles exploded. The white flash billowed upward, illuminating an astonishing image-a freeze-frame he would remember forever. Rachel Sexton hung ten feet below him like a tangled marionette in the water. Beneath her, the Triton sub fell away fast, its dome hanging loose. The sharks in the area scattered for the open sea, clearly sensing the danger this area was about to unleash. Tolland’s exhilaration at seeing Rachel out of the sub was instantly vanquished by the realization of what was about to follow. Memorizing her position as the light disappeared, Tolland dove hard, clawing his way toward her. Thousands of feet down, the shattered crust of the magma dome exploded apart, and the underwater volcano erupted, spewing twelve-hundred-degree-Celsius magma up into the sea. The scorching lava vaporized all the water it touched, sending a massive pillar of steam rocketing toward the surface up the central axis of the megaplume. Driven by the same kinematic properties of fluid dynamics that powered tornadoes, the steam’s vertical transfer of energy was counterbalanced by an anticyclonic vorticity spiral that circled the shaft, carrying energy in the opposite direction. Spiraling around this column of rising gas, the ocean currents started intensifying, twisting downward. The fleeing steam created an enormous vacuum that sucked millions of gallons of seawater downward into contact with the magma. As the new water hit bottom, it too turned into steam and needed a way to escape, joining the growing column of exhaust steam and shooting upward, pulling more water in beneath it. As more water rushed in to take its place, the vortex intensified. The hydrothermal plume elongated, and the towering whirlpool grew stronger with every passing second, its upper rim moving steadily toward the surface. An oceanic black hole had just been born. Rachel felt like a child in a womb. Hot, wet darkness all engulfing her. Her thoughts were muddled in the inky warmth. Breathe. She fought the reflex. The flash of light she had seen could only have come from the surface, and yet it seemed so far away. An illusion. Get to the surface. Weakly, Rachel began swimming in the direction where she had seen the light. She saw more light now†¦ an eerie red glow in the distance. Daylight? She swam harder. A hand caught her by the ankle. Rachel half-screamed underwater, almost exhaling the last of her air. The hand pulled her backward, twisting her, pointing her back in the opposite direction. Rachel felt a familiar hand grasp hers. Michael Tolland was there, pulling her along with him the other way. Rachel’s mind said he was taking her down. Her heart said he knew what he was doing. Kick with your feet, her mother’s voice whispered. Rachel kicked as hard as she could. 130 Even as Tolland and Rachel broke the surface, he knew it was over. The magma dome erupted. As soon as the top of the vortex reached the surface, the giant underwater tornado would begin pulling everything down. Strangely, the world above the surface was not the quiet dawn he had left only moments ago. The noise was deafening. Wind slashed at him as if some kind of storm had hit while he was underwater. Tolland felt delirious from lack of oxygen. He tried to support Rachel in the water, but she was being pulled from his arms. The current! Tolland tried to hold on, but the invisible force pulled harder, threatening to tear her from him. Suddenly, his grip slipped, and Rachel’s body slid through his arms-but upward. Bewildered, Tolland watched Rachel’s body rise out of the water. Overhead, the Coast Guard Osprey tilt-rotor airplane hovered and winched Rachel in. Twenty minutes ago, the Coast Guard had gotten a report of an explosion out at sea. Having lost track of the Dolphin helicopter that was supposed to be in the area, they feared an accident. They typed the chopper’s last known coordinates into their navigation system and hoped for the best. About a half mile from the illuminated Goya, they saw a field of burning wreckage drifting on the current. It looked like a speedboat. Nearby, a man was in the water, waving his arms wildly. They winched him in. He was stark naked-all except for one leg, which was covered with duct tape. How to cite Deception Point Page 107, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Sustainability for Waste Management & Research- myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theSustainability for Waste Management Research. Answer: A system is a set of various parts that are interrelated with each other so that they can work towards achieving a common goal. In this essay the use of system thinking to develop solutions to achieve sustainability challenges is to be evaluated. Various arguments related to system thinking whether favorable or not while dealing with the present wicked problem is to be critically analyzed. System thinking generally focuses on the interrelationship between the individual parts and creating solutions for these problems. The problem of household food waste management is to be discussed by applicability of system thinking. In the current times both the developed and underdeveloped countries are facing the problem of food waste management from the household sector. Proper household food waste management is considered to be as a wicked problem in Australia. As per Eilam and Reisfeld (2017) system thinking is concluded to be a time consuming process and is very difficult to understand. In the recent times, system thinking approach is highly significant in dealing with the problems related to sustainability. As per Chunlin and Chan (2015) system thinking has been used by many researchers and academicians. There is a slight difference between the system thinking approach and traditional thinking approach. The traditional thinking practices used to focus on the major problem area while the system thinking approach lays major emphasis on inter relationship among the various constituents of the system. In the era of globalization, the world is going to face various problems and complexities. As suggested by () the complex or wicked problems can only be solved through system thinking. System thinking is a holistic approach and is interrelated with the systems constituent parts. Wicked problem Household food waste is one of the wicked problems faced by Australia. According to Rittel and Webber (1975) it is estimated that between 30 to 50% of the total food produced by the country is wasted. In Australia, maximum food waste is sent to landfill that represent an ineffective use of the existing scarce resources. The major environmental problem associated with this is generation of various greenhouses gases. Maximum amount of waste that is generated by the greenhouse gases is measured by the government. However, only that amount of food waste is ascertained by the government, which is disposed through the organized waste treatment procedure. As per Bing et al. (2015), the informal disposal of solid waste and domestic foods are taken in various forms. In Australia, the waste is disposed via waste disposal systems in a formal manner. Through system thinking, it would be possible to disposed of the household food waste in a more systematic and formal manner. According to Schott and Andersson (2015) more importance should be given on the agriculture and food systems to tackle the sustainability issue. The procedure underlying social, economic and environmental sustainability would be deriving from system thinking of the global food system. As per Thi, Kumar and Lin (2015) system thinking on the other hand would not be helpful in ascertaining the vital trade-offs that leads to increase in the accompanied food chain. In Australia the problem related to the food waste management is significant. Moreover, on an average it is also estimated that the Australia produces sufficient fresh foods so that the 60 million people can be fed on a daily basis. On the other hand, the country also spends more than 7.5 million tons of food that is suitable for the human consumption. In Australia recently the cost of food waste has significantly risen from $ 5.2 billion to $8 billion from the year 2009 to 2014. Moreover, in Australia, the food wastes also occur predominantly at both the retail and consumer levels. At an annual level, $616 worth of food is wasted from the household sector. As mentioned by Higgins (2014) the three pillar models of sustainability are social, economical and environmental. The most commonly used model for sustainable development is the three pillars model. As per, the model was previously known to be the acute pillars. The social aspect of the sustainability model mostly focuses on balancing the needs of the people with the group interest. For household food waste management, the social initiatives mostly involves market specific training programs for sustainable agriculture and food management, the second pillar is environmental sustainability, this is obtained when systems, activities and processes reduces the environmental impact. Proper food waste management through effective operations and facilities would lead to create a sustainable environment. The economic pillar is the third pillar of sustainability. This is used to encourage the strategies that are used in promoting the application of socio-economic resources to achieve maximum benefits. The three pillars model also known as the prism model comprises of major set of interlinked components. According to Teirlinck (2015) economic sustainability mainly involves to make sure that country makes maximum profit without creating any environmental or social issues within the organization. System thinking would help in building sustainable food system that would aim to redirect the policies and food system related to better adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. The sustainability for household food waste management is necessary to support positive transformation within the society. System thinking approach helps in dealing with the sustainability challenges. As per Garlapati (2016) problems that have turned more complex in the recent rimes can only be solved with the help of system thinking. The wide perspectives related to the system thinking can solve all the complex factors, which is dependent on the external factors. Household food waste management is an emergent problem that is continuously changing. Solving the complex problem can be achieved only through system thinking. This can be solved through analytical tools and methods. As per Salemdeeb et al. (2017) system dynamic is an effective approach to model system which is emphasized their feedback loops. Food wastes have vital implications on the community at various levels. This directly impacts the society on various levels. It also creates a direct impact on the condition of environment and is the cause of the climatic change. When the food wastes collected from the households is sent to landfills for decomposition, methane gas is emitted that traps the heat present in the atmosphere. The gas is produced at 25 times higher rate than that of carbon dioxide. As mentioned by Abeliotis, Lasaridi and Chroni (2014)14% of the total emissions of carbon dioxide in the world are caused due to household food wastes. Moreover, foods that are left to rot within the landfills also create a negative impact on land biodiversity around the landfills. This leads to pollute all the groundwater and waterways thus degrading the quality of environment. There are major six steps related to the system thinking that could be applied to solve all kinds of complex problems (GoodMan and Karash 1995). The first step involves in solving the problem includes is to understand the main problem area, which is achieved by looking deeply at the overall system instead of the individual parts. The major steps requires meeting with the stakeholders sharing the vision about the situation with the help of concept maps. It is important to tell the story as the starting point of system thinking analysis includes thinking about the problem besides acting on it. The next step includes drawing behavior over time graphs as it would link the present to the past and thus would lead to move from seeing events to recognizing patterns over time (Chunlin and Chan 2015). The third step includes creating a focusing statement, at this point a statement would be created to help in analyzing the rest of procedures. This step is followed by identifying the structure and the system archetype is an effective way to ascertain and build a theory of how and why things are happening. The fifth step includes going deeper into the underlying issues so that a proper action can be implemented by the management. Finally, planning an intervention is important to acknowledge the system so that a solution can be designed that would help in designing a solution for producing the desirable solutions. The most significant intervention that involves is changing the thinking process of people that are involved in the system. Planning an intervention should be consistent wit h the structure. The iceberg model is another system thinking tool that should be designed to help any group are individual. This helps in discovering the behavior patterns, models and supporting structures that is related to a particular event. As per Maani and Cavana (2007) Iceberg model is most frequently used by the management to explain the system thinking methodology. The iceberg model is divided into four parts mental models, structure, pattern or trends and events. Each level of the iceberg model offers a deeper and clear understanding of the system. On the other hand as per Abeliotis, Lasaridi and Chroni (2014) it is not necessary to have a clear or deep understanding of the system theory to influence the behavior of the people. this model mostly tries to explain that any sort of problem is too deep and is hidden beneath the covers. As per Bing et al. (2015) system thinking is a powerful and useful to obtain a world view and produce new perspectives. The solutions to the wicked problem of household food waste management are generated at each lower level and also tend to be more innovative and have a major substantial impact. The mental model level is the most powerful level that provides the basic solution for household food waste management that is to be created and is quite hard to implement. Whereas, as mentioned by, the major challenges in this model related to system thinking is that choosing appropriate responses at all the adequate levels? Sometimes identifying new patterns or events can also lead to change the entire structure for the system thinking of the wicked problem. In Australia, wastes can be generally disposed by proper waste disposal system. Through system thinking the local government can establish waste disposal system through alternate routes. Majority of household food wastes is disposed through kerbiside local government by proper treatment and collection. The waste collected is treated by land filling and municipal composting. The existing municipal composting in the country encourages households for proper waste management. The household food wastes are distributed in appropriate municipal beans especially in green organic bins, which include food wastes. The wastes than is further transformed to the various composting facility and landfills. However as per Maani and Cavana (2007) there are no standards related to the practice for food waste collection. Food waste is recently an international phenomenon that has affected all the countries globally. Majority of household food wastes produced in Australia occurs reportedly on the later phase of food supply chain. System thinking helps in evaluating the current scenario in a clearer manner. It can be concluded that Australia should prepare itself for the current rise in the increase in the food demand. The overall households food wastes produced by the country are approximately around 7.5 millions tones of food each year. The nation cannot continue to waste the food resources in the recent years. The efforts related to reduce the food wastes is also an environmental imperative. Therefore system thinking is beneficial for sustainability and offers sustainable alternative to maximize the production of food wastes. References: Abeliotis, K., Lasaridi, K. and Chroni, C., 2014. Attitudes and behaviour of Greek households regarding food waste prevention.Waste Management Research,32(3), pp.237-240. Bing, X., Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J., Chaabane, A. and van der Vorst, J., 2015. Global reverse supply chain redesign for household plastic waste under the emission trading scheme.Journal of cleaner production,103, pp.28-39. Chunlin, G.U.O. and Chan, C.C., 2015. Whole-system thinking, development control, key barriers and promotion mechanism for EV development.Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy,3(2), pp.160-169. Eilam, B. and Reisfeld, D., 2017. A Curriculum Unit for Promoting Complex System Thinking: The Case of Combined System Dynamics and Agent Based Models for Population Growth.Journal of Advances in Education Research,2(2). Eriksson, M., Strid, I. and Hansson, P.A., 2015. Carbon footprint of food waste management options in the waste hierarchya Swedish case study.Journal of Cleaner Production,93, pp.115-125. Garlapati, V.K., 2016. E-waste in India and developed countries: Management, recycling, business and biotechnological initiatives.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,54, pp.874-881. Goodman, M.I.C.H.A.E.L. and Karash, R.I.C.H.A.R.D., 1995. Six steps to thinking systemically.The systems thinker,6(2). Higgins, K.L., 2014.Economic Growth and Sustainability: Systems Thinking for a Complex World. Academic Press. Maani, K. and Cavana, R.Y., 2007.Systems thinking, system dynamics: Managing change and complexity. Prentice Hall. Rittel, H.W. and Webber, M.M., 1973. Dilemmas in a general theory of planning.Policy sciences,4(2), pp.155-169. Salemdeeb, R., zu Ermgassen, E.K., Kim, M.H., Balmford, A. and Al-Tabbaa, A., 2017. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.Journal of cleaner production,140, pp.871-880. Schott, A.B.S. and Andersson, T., 2015. Food waste minimization from a life-cycle perspective.Journal of environmental management,147, pp.219-226. Teirlinck, P., 2015. Current Trends in Regional Innovation System Thinking and Policy Making.International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development,6(1), pp.1-6. Thi, N.B.D., Kumar, G. and Lin, C.Y., 2015. An overview of food waste management in developing countries: current status and future perspective.Journal of environmental management,157, pp.220-229.